Thursday, 19 January 2017

OS Readings Series: Avery

Avery, Joshua M., ‘Implementing an Open Source Integrated Library System (ILS) in a Special Focus Institution’, Digital Library Perspectives, 32 (2016), 287

These notes have turned into a list of advice... the start of the article contains a very nice literature review on similar projects, and observations about same.

  • A list of ILS selction criteria are listed in Bossels 2008, Muller 2011, Pruett and Choi 2013. Sing and Sanamann 2012 and Yang and Hofmann 2010
  • Current literature shows Koha is a better fit for small less complex library systems. 
  • Opac is highly customizable
  • Discussions with local IT began well in advance of migration. A task management system (Asana) was put in place (manage, schedule, track and update stages)
  • Knowledge gathering via listserv, chat-boards, weblogs, tutorials, documentation and contacts
  • Read online handbook 
  • Talk to institutions of same size
  • Test server allow release and updates to be tested before going live
  • Koha implementation check list is available online
  • Install than, branches, item types, patron types, collections. Locations and other rules and preferences > then data migration
  • Migration means questioning rules, config., etc. 
  • Data mapping > MARC EDIT USED to edit marc records for import
    • 952 = holdings data
    • 942 = class and item type
    • Data is loaded in batches so carefully label each batch using the comment function in the koha batch upload tool 
    • Try to keep batches <10,000
    • Batch load Circ data via offline circ
  • One month before live = final opac customizations and intensive training for staff on new system
  • Old system was kept live for 24 months and staff did harvest data from it on occasion. 
  • Each library’s migration and day to day experience is different.  
  • Consider formal per and post measures of staff and student satisfaction with the ILS
  • Local understanding of the limits of MySQL, CSS, HTML, Linux, Apache and Perl is needed
  • Clearly determine who is responsible for which task
  • Waive fines and fees
  • Have regular meetings with all parties – face to face

OS Readings Series: Singh

Singh, Vandana, ‘Experiences of Migrating to an Open- Source Integrated Library System’, Information Technology & Libraries, 32 (2013), 36–53 <> [accessed 19 January 2017] 
Singh refers to Kohn and McCloy's advice to migrate in 3 phases: 

  1.  Public Web Site and Federated Catalogue
  2. & 3 Staff back end. 
In relation to time frames Walls (3 months) and Dennison and Lewis ( 2months) are mentioned. 

Advice is given to have staff work on the system before training (2 days), to ensure that they get the most out of it, and to deliver same by module.

  • Create awareness as to what open source is in the library
  • Develop IT skills internally
  • Have a demonstration system
  • Have a designated liaison with the vendor
  • Set aside a significant amount of staff time for: 
    • Testing
    • Development
    • Migration
  • Set up regular meetings
  • Do three test loads
  • Set up tables and settings in advance
  • Do data mapping very carefully
  • Weed out of date materials 
  • Have a fine amnesty
  • Look at grant money for OS development and do so in a partnership.
  • Spot check data
  • Utilise training materials generated by other libraries 
  • Utilise manuals created by other libraries
  • Utilise pre-existing webinars
  • Systems administration staff will need more intensive training
    • Specifically: Linux and SQL
  • If migration is changing things significantly for patrons additional marketing and a demonstration system could be made available
  • Set up online tutorials for patrons 

OS Readings Series: Walls

Walls, Ian, ‘Migrating from Innovative Interfaces’ Millennium to Koha: The NYU Health Sciences Libraries' Experiences’, OCLC Systems & Services: International Digital Library Perspectives, 27 (2011), 51–56 <>

 This article was reviewed with aneye to identifying problems, issues and advice for migrating from Millennium to Koha. 

Expired codes, typos and outdated MARC21 fields were identified as needing to be addressed. 
Location field in Millennium translates into 4 fields in Koha. (Branch, Item Location, Item Type and Collection)
M    MARC21 export required a script to extract in MARCXML format from the OPAC as Data Exchange module was not available. 

     Consider which patrons to migrate : 
     Only those active in the last X years
     Only those with library materials
     Only those with fines / bills 
     Validae accounts to be migrated against the local master directory

     Staff training and testing
     Have the data available to staff 3 months in advance. Test extensively for functionality as it may be there but in a different location, or labelled something else. 
     Identify and document changes to procedures and policy. 
     Create cataloguing templates 
     Use different CSS for the public and staff interfaces to make them clearly different from each other. 
     Workflows will change in Acquisitions, Cataloguing and Circulation at a minimum. 

Open source systems for libraries - readings series

Over the next while I will be doing a significant amount of reading in the area of open source systems for libraries. My notes on each reading (including full citation) will be posted separately on this blog, and these notes will be from the perspective of looking to implement some of these systems. Each reading will be listed here once posted. The readings will be from a variety of sources, from blogs, wiki's, journals etc.

Wednesday, 26 October 2016

Delivering Responsive Web Design via the Library OPAC - a literature review

I recently had an article published in the ‘Journal of Web Librarianship’. Below is a longer literature review that than included in the article. Article details are at the end.


This literature review covers three phases: a pre-project review, an ongoing review during the project, and a final literature review undertaken when composing this article. The findings of the literature review are presented here thematically. There is still very little written in the literature about the application of responsive web design to the OPAC of a small academic library. Case studies about similar activities are most frequently about larger libraries with more resources, staffing, and training available to support the project.
The Argument for Responsive Design
The pre-project literature review identified very few library and information science-specific publications dealing with responsive design in a library environment, and even fewer of a case study nature. No instance was identified where the responsive site was hosted on the WebOPAC platform. Contributions of interest include: Marcotte (Marcotte 2010) who focused on the initial concept of responsive design, Fox (2012) and Riley-Huff (2012), who discussed responsive design in the library context. Dalton (Dalton 2013), a college liaison librarian at University College Dublin (UCD) argued that while responsive design can reduce the need for mobile apps, interactive content may still need an app to be deliver the full benefit of rich content.
A good outline of the pros and cons of mobile apps versus web apps is found on mobiForge, self-proclaimed as the “world’s largest independent mobile web development community” (mobiForge 2010). In question and answer format this piece explained much of the jargon and technology used in delivering apps and highlights how the introduction of new standards such as HTML5 narrow the gap between what mobile and web apps can do.
Several experts inspired the Library Institute of Technology Tallaght to explore responsive design as both a service improvement to our users and to save money. According to Google’s Developer Programs technical lead Maile Ohye, a motivating factor for many sites to move toward to responsive design was the fact that Google’s new algorithm moved poorly mobilized sites down search results, as was the increasing level of site traffic in non-desktop screen sizes (Ohye 2015). Ohye also outlined the process used to identify areas to be the focus of responsive design, as well as the tools used for emulating the finalized pages such as Google Developers’ Mobile Friendly Test. Marshall Breeding, a noted independent consultant in the field of library technology and systems (Breeding 2015, 23-26), further underscored the argument for libraries to adopt responsive design.

Constant Change
User expectations, web standards, and web technologies have constantly evolved over the past decade. This creates a challenge for smaller libraries where staff resourcing for online services may be part of a greater set of responsibilities, and it is unlikely a staff member can be allocated to the development of online services full time. Marcotte, the web designer who coined the phrase “responsive design” (2010), pointed out that working on the web is transient in nature, and noted how mobile access will likely outstrip desktop access by 2015. His core argument was that the greater number of devices, inputs, and browsers than ever before causes a rise in demand for websites which work with these devices. While initially compatibility was achieved using separate sites or subdomains, a more flexible approach to design is more future-proof. While being layout-independent is sufficient for the needs of desktop users, a more optimized approach is needed for other devices.
Responsive Design as a tool
In light of the importance of responsive design in future-proofing web designs, it is important to evaluate it as not only as a new technology but also as a useful tool. To this end (Wisniewski 2013, 74), current Web Services and Communications Librarian at the University of Pittsburgh, discussed responsive design activities as a set of tools which allow a website to be designed so that they respond to the context of the user and the device accessing the web site at hand. He reported that responsive design solves the problem of not knowing what screen sizes will dominate in the future. He provided a brief outline of CSS coding for basic responsive functions, and the control of image resolution and size. Fox (2012, 119-125), current Manager of Web and Software Engineering at Hesburgh Library, University of Notre Dame, outlined how HTML5 and CSS3 provide tools to respond to the different devices which may access a site. The key benefit of responsive design is, according to Fox, the ability to maintain the content on one site only.
A useful case study was undertaken by Gayhart, User Experience Librarian at the University of Toronto Library and colleagues (Gayhart, Khalid, and Belray 2014). They described the how the development of a new catalog discovery layer used responsive design principles. Leveraging their experience and knowledge of user interactions with existing catalogs to inform and plan improvements allowed the team to concentrate on retaining the desktop web site as-is while developing a responsive design to limit the amount of divergence from the main design. The article detailed device testing processes, navigation menu decisions, accessibility to WCAG 2.0 AA testing tools, and back-end design considerations. The responsive design was paired with the redesign of the application and server infrastructure. An open source load balancer was introduced to improve load times. The Toronto team also discussed communications strategies for users and staff in addition to library staff as an important part of feedback solicitation and change management.
Snell, web librarian at the Mechanics' Institute Library and Chess Room in San Francisco, provided a history of the evolution of differing screen sizes culminating in the explosion of the tablet market in 2010 (2013, 12). He argued that sites should be viewable across multiple screen resolutions. He discussed the change from using pixels to percentage to control the size of design elements, and cautioned developers to pay attention to the sizes of nested content areas as the screen gets smaller. The article also described the use of CSS Media Queries.

Moving towards mobile services
As responsive design becomes standard, it is important to consider many mobile devices in planning projects, not just smartphones. To this end Fox (2012, 119-125) offered a theoretical discussion of the philosophy behind the responsive design trend. Efforts to support the move towards the use of mobile devices have led to the duplication of content across platforms, and Fox proposed responsive design as a solution to avoid duplication of effort.
Bohyun Kim, current Associate Director, Library Applications and Knowledge Systems, University of Maryland, Health Sciences and Human Services Library (Kim 2013, 29-30) pointed out that mobile users have expectations of library’s web sites, and that libraries need to be creative and skilful in their adaption of these technologies. Such exceptions include access to the same amount of information and the ability to complete the same tasks on a mobile device, all content and services flowing smoothly from one device to another, a mobile ‘view’ of the web site, menu customization, and more mobile friendly information resources. Kim used images of library web sites to illustrate the advantages of responsive design, and warned that poorly designed responsive sites are as cumbersome to use as non-responsive sites. Changing the placement of content on the mobilized pages can lead to confusion for users familiar with the non-mobile site. The load speed of a responsive site can take longer than a separate mobile site. Kim urged designers to keep the site uncomplicated, offered steps to begin the process, and suggested tools such as  CMSs. Kim noted that marketing the final web site and any additional mobile-optimized services is essential to the overall success of such projects.
Because the key aim of responsive design is to enable access to the same content via multiple devices, it is essential that case studies applying these technologies are identified and examined before commencing similar projects. It is especially important that any project lead applies lessons learned during the planning stages to save time and effort.
Lessick (Librarian Emerita, Grunigen Medical Library, University of California) and colleagues (2013, 239-243) discussed responsive web design at the University of Iowa’s Health Sciences Library. For this team, having a responsive web site meant having only one site to maintain, saving staff time and using best-practices for mobile device-optimized sites.  They noted that it might have been easier to use a pre-existing theme rather than adapt the previous year’s redesign.
Librarians Hannah Rempel and Laurie Bridges (2013, 8) outlined the history of mobile web services at Oregon State University, the theoretical debate surrounding them, and  mobile usability studies, including those focused on library web sites. The methodology and results of their study of tasks undertaken via an online, voluntary survey on the library’s mobile site are presented. Their online survey was quite detailed, ran for 12 weeks and netted 115 responses. They found that multiple user groups access the mobile web site, and top reasons to visit the site were to check opening times, find a book, research a topic, make study room reservations, and check computer availability. They also found that tasks undertaken were similar irrespective of the time undertaken.
Rempel and Bridges also analyzed Web analytics (Google Analytics) for the survey period. The desktop site was used more frequently than the mobile site by mobile devices for practical tasks, such as computer or study room availability. Survey respondents identified a disconnect between what users did and what they wanted to do, highlighting the need for the website to support more complex tasks. A new, responsive design, including the use of Drupal modules and themes, allowed the library to avoid supporting a separate mobile site. Some information sources outside of the library’s design control could not be included in the project, including study room bookings and the library catalog.
Any web design project should support accessibility and inclusivity from the beginning. For libraries this is especially important as many are publically funded, and are often obligated by guidelines or legislation to provide accessible services online. The illustrative case studies outlined below are very useful in this context and provide examples of academic libraries’ experiences, giving the reader a good overview of the types and importance of undertaking the implementation of accessibility in library web design projects.
Riley-Huff (2012, 29), Head of Web Services at the University of Mississippi Libraries, asserted that web site accessibility should be a given and that accessible web sites are more usable for everyone. He noted there are limits related to human resources and the size of website. He recommended compliance with local web standards, and offered tools for the testing of sites, including the Web Accessibility Evaluation Tool (WAVE). He urged readers to know their constituent communities and design to their needs, and to solicit library staff for feedback about where they experience users with problems using the website. Riley-Huff also cautioned readers to be aware of any accessibility software or tools that the user might be using and to take them into account in the design process. He provided design advice, including examples and warnings against using Flash content and requiring JavaScript or jQuery for full functionality. Riley-Huff also included concerns about CMSs and accessibility, and gave an overview of WAI-ARIA (a set of HTML attributes for dynamic content or highly developed interfaces to make them accessible).
Baker, Systems / Institutional Repository Librarian at Western Oregon University (2014, 118-136) argued that is it essential to embrace accessibility and universality, including responsiveness in web design projects. He concentrated on design philosophies and summarized recent updates to WCAG 2.0, HTML5, CSS3, and WAI-ARIA. Baker noted that while the four principles of WCAG 2.0 (perceivable, operable, understandable, robust) have no legal standing, they remain the clearest guidelines for accessible design. Baker advised project planning and recommended a comprehensive series of steps to provide a framework. These included beginning with content stripped of layout then arranging it in a logical manner. Next, semantic mark-up using HTML should be added. Styling the site using CSS via an external file rather than the inline method makes later CSS and design changes easier to apply globally. JavaScript and other technologies can then be added once these steps are complete, as long as they are made accessible by good scripting practices, use of WAI-ARIA, and are used in an unobtrusive manner. Finally, testing the site is important so that if it does not work as expected, time is available to rectify any issues (Baker 2014).
Technological Methods
An examination of the literature allowed the project lead to identify the methods available to deliver a responsive web site and demonstrate that several technological methods are combined in order to do so. These newly emerged technologies are summarized thematically below.
In web design, the period 2010-2013 saw a move towards using HTML5 (the standard was only finalized in October 2014) and CSS3. HTML5 brought major changes to web application development. HTML5 aims to solve compatibility issues and support multimedia access on mobile devices. Baker (2014, 118-136) reviewed HTML5’s new features, such as the expanded selection of elements and support for embedding video and audio especially via APIs.
CSS3 and the media queries file.
CSS3 is used to control the layout of web pages separately from page content, while a separate CSS file entitled “media queries” contains the instructions for how the web page should respond to different screen sizes and devices (Baker 2014; Marcotte 2010), control elements of the page beyond layout, including, but not limited to the target area for links, Fitt’s Law compliance on touch devices, showing and hiding page elements for navigation purposes, and responsive typesetting (Marcotte 2010). Several authors discussed the importance and application of CSS3 and the media queries file in particular. For each screen size and device, entries specify the CSS layout styles necessary to successfully produce a web page that fits the device’s requirements. Media queries also allow break points to be inserted into page layout: Baker provided code examples for doing so (Baker 2014, 118-136). Kim (2013, 29-30) offered further code examples comparing traditional and responsive CSS, along with a discussion of the functionality CSS makes available to the designer.
CSS frameworks to control display are used to create standards-compliant, cross-browser compatible websites. Frameworks described by Snell (2013, 12) and other include the following:
  • BASE: BASE is a lightweight responsive HTML5 and CSS3 framework with minimal code.
  • Bootstrap: A HTML, CSS, and JavaScript framework for developing accessible, responsive, mobile-first projects (Baker 2014, 118-136).
  • Foundation: provides a family of accessible, responsive front-end frameworks while being semantic, readable, flexible, and completely customizable. Works on any device.
  • Titan: Provides configurable settings for WordPress themes and plugins with a few lines of code.
  • Drupal: An open source content management system that allows for the creation of integrated digital frameworks with thousands of add-ons, modules for functionality, and themes for customizing presentation.
This review of the literature provided a limited number of examples of noteworthy responsive web design projects in libraries and supported the argument that library web sites should implement responsive design as one component of a universal web design strategy. This approach also provides web services and content to mobile users that mirrors their desktop experience. To this end, responsive web design can be used as a tool to future-proof library web sites against the current online environment of constant change, at least to a certain extent. The technological methods to do so provide a good starting point for any project lead about to undertake a project of this nature.
Baker, Stewart C. 2014. "Making it Work for Everyone: HTML5 and CSS Level 3 for Responsive, Accessible Design on Your Library's Web Site." Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning 8 (3/4): 118-136.
Breeding, Marshall. 2015. "The Systems Librarian. Going Mobile: How I made My Own Site Responsive." Computers in Libraries 35 (4): 23-26.
Dalton, Michelle. "Could 2013 be the Year of Responsive Design? ~ Libfocus - Irish Library Blog.", last modified 30 jan, accessed 12 aug, 2015,
Fox, Robert. 2012. "Being Responsive." OCLC Systems & Services: International Digital Library Perspectives 28 (3): 119-125. doi:10.1108/10650751211262100.
Gayhart, Lisa, Bilal Khalid, and Gordon Belray. 2014. "The Road to Responsive: University of Toronto Libraries’ Journey to a New Library Catalogue Interface." The Code4Lib Journal (23).
Lessick, Rumsey, Pearson, Roksandic, Gillum, Garcia-Milian, and Samsundar. 2013. "Moving Beyond the Bookshelves." Journal of the Medical Library Association : JMLA 101 (4): 239-243.
Marcotte, Ethan. "Responsive Web Design · an A List Apart Article.", last modified 25 may, accessed 14 aug, 2015,
mobiForge. "Mobile Applications: Native V Web Apps - what are the Pros and Cons?", last modified 8 spe, accessed 12 aug, 2015,
Ohye, Maile. "Official Google Webmaster Central Blog: FAQs about the April 21st Mobile-Friendly Update.", last modified 21 apr, accessed 13 aug, 2015,
Rempel, Hannah Gascho and Laurie Bridges. 2013. "That was then, this is Now: Replacing the Mobile-Optimized Site with Responsive Design." Information Technology and Libraries 32 (4): 8. doi:10.6017/ital.v32i4.4636.
Riley-Huff, Debra A. 2012. "Web Accessibility and Universal Design: A Primer on Standards and Best Practices for Libraries." Library Technology Reports 48 (7): 29.
Snell, Jeremy. 2013. "FLEXIBLE EVERYTHING: Getting Responsive with Web Design." Computers in Libraries, 04/, 12.

 The Accepted Manuscript of the article published by Taylor & Francis in JOURNAL OF WEB LIBRARIANSHIP on 17th October, 2016, available online:

Article Citation: Niamh Walker-Headon (2016): Responsive Web Site Development at the Library, Institute of Technology Tallaght: A Case Study, Journal of Web Librarianship, DOI:10.1080/19322909.2016.1229147

Friday, 11 September 2015

IATUL Conference 2015 - Day 5 [Visit to TIB Library]



The morning was taken up by the opportunity to visit the TIB library, in the Leibnitz University, providing attendees with a fascinating insight into this internationally renowned library, and its services. Delegates were given an overview of the library, it's functions / mission and future plans, before a physical tour of the library. Of particular interest was the storage of materials both on and off site, leaving only current course materials and items borrowed in the last five year on the open stacks. This leaves the vast majority of the public space in the library available for study. Varied and flexible learning spaces were available on every floor. Group study, post graduate ‘office’ style rooms, and flexible instruction space were just the tip of the iceberg. We also got to see behind the scenes, with a trip to the basement to see the storage of rare materials, the scanning centre for document supply, and even the book elevator.

Friday, 14 August 2015

IATUL Conference 2015 - Day 4




The first speakers of the morning outlined the EZB link resolver service [] from the University of Regensburg, how it is used by almost all German institutions, and over 125 international one’s, including the Library of Congress.  It has access to the metadata of 80,800 journals, which is collectively collaboratively gathered. The linking services checks for full text availability against the metadata and returns results using a traffic light coding system, to indicate availability or lack thereof. The system leverages OpenURL, and offers results based on the IP origin of the query, responding to millions of requests a day.
The EZB service hopes to improve its direct article linking, especially for open access publications, and repositories. They have also worked with Bielefeld University on the search engine for academic publication searching [], which allows ‘open’ documents to be boosted within the results listing.


Mr. Heller detailed the case for the handling of pictures / images within publications, especially those with unique information content. He highlighted that some images have their own DOI allowing them to be cited separately from their original document of publication. These pictures can help understand a search result while browsing, and some can / have been licenses for reuse, as open educational resources (OER), on MOOC’s, in PowerPoints, in the press. Images can cross language barriers and are therefore a powerful tool for conveying research results. It was observed that the Google images search for reusable images currently has a low rate of precision, and that some disciplines are now highly centred on digital imagery (biology, medicine, geography).
Mr. Heller went on to detail a text mining project leveraging Wikipedia and Wikidata [ ] , to identify peer reviewed images. Wikipedia was chosen because it is usually returned in the top results by search engines, and is all about open access. Data was put into the Wikimedia [] commons and viewed on Wikidata to identify peer reviewed images. This approach is similar to how the google knowledge graph that is created from Wikidata. It was noted that there are some very advanced image recognition projects currently via Wikimedia.


Mr. Strobel highlighted the TIB’s video portal [], which allow for +2900 videos / 1900 films [mostly open access] to be searched, using automatically generated metadata. Named Entity Recognition is leveraged to for the index. An algorithm is used to disambiguate the terms. The resultant taxonomic schema is only partly semantic, with the German name registry [GND] providing sub-heading for the semantic part. Thesauri were included to increase synonym matching.


Ms. Arraiza spoke of the use of video abstracts as a method of scientific communication, as it allows the author to focus on the intelligibility of their abstract content, while allowing data to be represented in a way that is beyond 2D. ACRL have guidelines for dealing with videos, while the TIB AV Portal allows citation and archiving via DOI. This also allows for the tracking of use for impact measurement. Possible issues still need to be addressed in the area of file size, workflows, rights and impact measurement, in addition to linking for semantic searching.


Ms. Blümel spoke of Vivo [] as a research information management system. This open source system is well maintained by the user community, and allows for the identification of sources. Open Refine [] was used to try to create linked name spaces, as the information is no longer in unavailable silos. Alternatives such as Elsevier Pure, [], and Research Gate [] were all discussed.


Mr. Boon spoke of the library’s decision to provide a blog services to staff and students. This service sees 1/3 of its traffic from outside of the Nan yang TU Campus. One issue is that students prefer ease over quality. The service is provided via a server configured to run WordPress, this allows the URL to include NTU, and makes the blog more ‘official’. Training, new feature introduction and design are all provided. As are the integration of library resources and the migration of blog content to other platforms. Some students have to create a blog as part of assignments. For example Art students use it to create an online personal portfolio over the 4 years of their study. This service, while self-maintained, allows for the exposure of academic research beyond the confines of the campus. It resides within the library sphere because of the staff’s skills and information awareness.


Mr. Stille outlined how at Darmstadt all patrons bring at least one device with them, hence, the decision to create an app to expose the collection of the library and museum to the wider world. An app is suitable in this case as the museum alone has +110,000 items which can be more easily viewed and browsed via the app than a static web page. Funding was received from the Louvre for the project. Html 5 and JavaScript were used as the base of the app to allow it to be compatible with all devices. A topic pie leverages metadata to create browse-able facets.  Future plans for additional features include: personalization, a recommender, present old scanned stock, and investigating licencing with an industrial partner.


Mr. Brindle outlined the introduction of 3D printing at the Radcliffe Library. The library has a proactive strategy to provide services that the researcher would not normally expect. Options for file creation include CAD (which requires maths, design, flair and training), or online repositories of prepared files. Creative Commons licensed files can be downloaded from these and modified. One example of this is Thingyverse []. Scanning an existing object is another option.
Before undertaking the project the library established the extent and general availability of other 3D printing facilities on campus. Existing services were not open for use beyond those in the Department where they were located.  The library decided to offer the service as it ties into the strategy of providing access to new technologies, as evidenced by the previous projects to introduce iPads and Kindles to campus.
As the library is not trying to make a profit from the services, they can afford to run it cheaply. The selected printer uses PLA which is non-toxic. The user provides a .stl file, staff check the file is sound and there are no issues with copyright, calculate the length of time required for the print job to run, and the user pays upfront. Items are available the following week. The week of the service launch there were a series of events highlighting 3D printing research.
The printer is noisy, but the service is so in demand that a second printer has had to be installed.



The next conference will be in Halifax, and attendees were introduced to the city and the theme "Library Leadership in a Sea of Change: At the Bowsprit of Service” by the hosts.